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Physically correcting an image

A calibrated image still appears distorted because it has not been physically corrected. You can use McalTransformImage() to physically correct and remove distortions from your images. An image that has no distortions and appears exactly as it would if looking straight down onto it is known as a corrected image. When a corrected image is used within a MIL module, pixels have the same, uniform size in every direction, and results can be returned in real-world units. As is expected, the image features in the corrected image will have the same world coordinates as they had in the source image, despite the fact their pixel coordinates have changed.

For example, after calibrating the source image below, the world coordinates of the bottom-left circle are (5,6). After correcting your image, the world coordinates of the bottom-left circle in the corrected image are also (5,6), even though it is evident that the pixel coordinates are different for the bottom-left circle in the source and corrected images.

When working in Tsai-based camera calibration mode or robotics camera calibration mode, it is possible to physically correct lens distortions of an image (that is, barrel distortion and pin cushion distortion) without removing other types of distortions. To correct lens distortions only, use McalTransformImage() with M_CORRECT_LENS_DISTORTION_ONLY.

Note that images are physically corrected using a geometric warping.

Generating lookup tables to correct images

Instead of generating a corrected image, it is possible to generate lookup tables (LUTs), using McalTransformImage() with M_EXTRACT_LUT_X and M_EXTRACT_LUT_Y, and then use these LUTs to correct images using MimWarp(). It is recommended to use this method when you are using hardware that yields faster processing with LUT inputs.

Scale and position of the corrected image

When calling McalTransformImage(), you can specify the fill mode. This essentially allows you to specify how the transformed image should be positioned and scaled in the destination image.

There are three types of fill mode: M_FIT, M_CLIP, and M_USE_DESTINATION_CALIBRATION. An M_FIT fill mode scales and positions the transformed image such that every source pixel maps to a valid destination pixel. An M_CLIP fill mode scales and positions the transformed image so that every destination pixel maps to a valid source pixel. Whereas, an M_USE_DESTINATION_CALIBRATION fill mode scales and positions the transformed image using the camera calibration information of the destination image.

When using an M_USE_DESTINATION_CALIBRATION fill mode, the source image is positioned such that its relative coordinate system is placed at the same location as the current relative coordinate system of the destination image. In addition, the source image is scaled to have the same pixel-to-world mapping as the destination image.

To use this fill mode, the destination image must be a calibrated image with a uniform pixel size. To apply a calibration to the destination image that just scales and offsets the world coordinate system from the pixel coordinate system, use McalUniform() on the destination buffer prior to calling McalTransformImage().

Note that this fill mode only affects how the image is positioned and scaled in the destination image; the source image is always transformed according to the calibration setting of the CalibrationId parameter .

This fill mode cannot be used with M_EXTRACT_LUT_X or M_EXTRACT_LUT_Y or performing an M_CORRECT_LENS_DISTORTION_ONLY operation.

Transformation cache

By default, a cache is used to physically correct an image. The first time a camera calibration context is used to transform an image, this cache fills up with information relevant to the transformation. On subsequent transformations with the camera calibration context, the information in the cache can significantly accelerate the transform. However, if you need to save memory, you can disable this cache, using McalControl() with M_TRANSFORM_CACHE. The cache consists of two 32-bit buffers that have the same size as the destination buffer of McalTransformImage().

The information in the cache is flushed whenever you change the size of the source or destination buffers of McalTransformImage(), the angle of the relative coordinate system in the camera calibration context, or the size and position of the pixels in the corrected image.